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How Early-20th-Century Americans Taught Their Kids to Be Thrifty

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This government pamphlet, from 1918, is a relic from the thrift movement of the 1910s and 1920s. It's part of a series of 20 twenty brochures, produced by the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA and the Treasury, promoting the virtue to Americans of all ages. Other installments included "Saving Food by Proper Care," "Thrift on the Farm," "How to Remove Stains," and "Wise Spending Saves." 

Andrew L. Yarrow writes in his book Thrift: The History of an American Cultural Movementthat for-profit and nonprofit entities (the YMCA; insurance companies; Sears, Roebuck) joined the government in the interwar campaign to teach thrift. Thrift promotion reached across party and ideological lines, drawing in both "progressives dedicated to improving the well-being of the working class through collective effort and conservatives intent on promoting individual self-reliance and integration into the nation's free enterprise system." 

Like other parts of the thrift movement, the push to teach thrift to children was strongest in the 1920s. Teachers used textbooks and lesson plans designed to encourage the virtue, and schools established savings banks that students could use as practice. Mechanical piggy banks—the examples Yarrow points to have Benjamin Franklin's face and name on them—sold briskly, and Boy and Girl Scouts signed Thrift Creeds and worked for Thrift Badges. 

In January 1920, the National Thrift Week Committee designated the week of Franklin's birthday Thrift Week, promoting discussion of savings on Monday, budgets on Tuesday, insurance on Wednesday, home-owning on Thursday, the making of a will on Friday, the paying of debts on Saturday, and sharing and charity on Sunday. 

During the Depression, when New Deal economists argued that consumer spending would strengthen the flagging economy, the tenets of the thrift movement began to look old-fashioned. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, Yarrow writes, "the teaching of thrift gradually became transformed into teaching Americans to be good consumers." 

Thanks to Mitch Fraas for the tip. 

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Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal - The Silent Majority

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Hovertext: I'm just saying, the first person to get the dead to rise from the grave is gonna totally win the primaries.


New comic!
Today's News:
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jhamill
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Duly noted.
Ontario, California

Jupiter Submarine

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Jupiter Submarine

What if you released a submarine into Jupiter's atmosphere? Would it eventually reach a point where it would float? Could it navigate?

—KTH

Nope! Jupiter's pressure, density, and temperature curves are different from ours. At the point in Jupiter's atmosphere where the density is high enough for a submarine to float, the pressure is high enough to crush the submarine,[1]Which makes it more dense. and the temperature is high enough to melt it.[2]Which makes it harder to drive.

But there's another problem: Jupiter is a gas giant, but submarines—as you can figure out from etymology—go under water.

Air and water are different. This seems straightforward enough, but they're also the same in a lot of ways. They're both "fluids," and some of the same rules apply to each. In some sense, when you look up at the sky, you're looking up from the bottom of a deep sea of air.

Things float when they're less dense than the fluid around them. This works the same for balloons in air and boats in water. The late Terry Pratchett wrote a truly beautiful passage about this, in the prologue to his book Going Postal. He says that since water is in many respects a wetter form of air,[3]Sounds reasonable enough to me. as ships sink, eventually they reach a point where the water was too dense to sink any further. This layer forms an underwater surface on which shipwrecks collect, drifting around beneath the waves but far above the sea floor:

It’s calm there. Dead calm.

Some stricken ships have rigging; some even have sails. Many still have crew, tangled in the rigging or lashed to the wheel.

But the voyages still continue, aimlessly, with no harbour in sight, because there are currents under the ocean and so the dead ships with their skeleton crews sail on around the world, over sunken cities and between drowned mountains, until rot and shipworms eat them away and they disintegrate.

Sometimes an anchor drops, all the way to the dark, cold calmness of the abyssal plain, and disturbs the stillness of centuries by throwing up a cloud of silt.

I love that passage. It's also completely wrong. Ships sink all the way to the bottom. (Sir Terry knew this, as the rest of the passage makes clear, but he's describing how ships work on Discworld, not Earth.)

Air follows the ideal gas law. The more pressure you put on it, the smaller (and denser) it gets.

Water, on the other hand, is pretty much incompressible. When you dive into the ocean, the pressure increases as you go deeper (rising by one atmosphere every 10 meters or so) but the water's density barely changes all the way down to the sea floor.

Buoyancy depends on density, not pressure. There's a point in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is equal to a little more than an Earth atmosphere—which is the pressure a submarine is used to—but the air there is barely a tenth as dense as ours. A submarine in that layer would fall even faster than it would in the air on Earth.

To reach a depth where it could "float" in Jupiter, the submarine would have to go halfway to the center of the planet, where the intense pressure turns the air into a metallic soup that's hotter than the surface of the Sun. The pressure there would be so high that not only would the submarine be crushed, the substances that make it up would probably converted into new and exciting forms. It's hard to create those kinds of conditions in a lab, so we don't know a lot about how materials behave with that much pressure pushing down on them.

In the sea, on the other hand, the density of the fluid stays relatively constant. That means the submarine can find its appropriate pressure range and float there. In other words, submarines only work because water doesn't follow the ideal gas law.

But there's one more twist: Water sort of does obey the ideal gas law. The equations governing water under normal pressure are similar to the equation for a gas under about twenty thousand atmospheres of pressure. In a sense, this is why water seems incompressible to us—it behaves as if it's already compressed so much that an extra atmosphere or two hardly makes a difference.

So, in some ways, water and air are more similar than they seem, but in the ways that matter for a submarine, they really are different.

Which, of course, brings us back to why it's called a submarine—it operates under a "mare". A vehicle designed to operate beneath a sea of air would be called a subaerine.[5]The "gas" in "gas giant" is from the Greek word for void (χάος, kháos), so maybe a vessel (σκάφη, skáphē) that travels through a gas giant's atmosphere would be a khaoskaphe.

Which, come to think of it, is a perfectly good description of a car.

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llucax
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I want a subaerin!
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10 Things We Learned About Who Really Made Your Subaru

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The carmaker Subaru is having a great decade so far: their sales have doubled in the United States and they’re having trouble keeping up with the demand. While that’s great news for Subaru, an in-depth investigation from Reuters shows that Subaru and its suppliers have turned to some questionable but legal labor practices to keep the Foresters coming down the line.

You should check out the entire investigation from Reuters, which includes a diagram of which parts of a Forester come from which suppliers, and video interviews with workers.

  1. Subaru’s sales have doubled in the United States since 2011: its Forester SUV crossover is especially popular here. Its marketing features loving families, cute dogs, and exceptionally long-lasting cars, all with the slightly baffling tagline, “Love. It’s what makes a Subaru a Subaru.”
  2. Subaru’s manufacturing center is in the city of Ota, Japan, north of Tokyo. While some vehicles sold in the U.S. are assembled in a plant in Indiana, parts come from Subaru and its suppliers in Ota.
  3. Subaru and its suppliers hire workers from the developing world, some of whom are in Japan to apply for asylum. Reuters talked to workers who came from 22 different countries in Asia and Africa.
  4. Workers also come to Subaru’s suppliers through labor brokers, the same kind used in the clothing and textile industries, and up to a third of their pay goes to the brokers.
  5. Some workers come to Subaru through traineeship programs, where the ostensible goal is for the trainee to learn skills and bring them back to their home country. The problem is that trainees can’t switch employers once they get to Japan, and the United Nations and U.S. State Department say that conditions for trainees can be like forced labor.
  6. Chinese trainees whose pay stubs Reuters reviewed earned about half what a Japanese temp worker would have earned for the same job.
  7. Japan is unique in that it has needs workers but also limits immigration, which is why Subaru apparently depends heavily on guest workers and trainees. Reuters estimates that 30% of the labor force in the plants in Ota are foreigners.
  8. Factories that make parts for Subaru also make parts for other Japanese automakers, including Honda, Toyota, and Nissan.
  9. Subaru makes about 80% of its cars in Japan, and its increase in sales coincided with a change to the law that lets foreigners seeking asylum work on renewable six-month permits.
  10. Subaru says that its suppliers must obey the law in their hiring and treatment of their workers, and that the company isn’t equipped to check the labor practices of all of its suppliers.

Subaru’s secret: Marginalized foreign workers power a Japanese export boom [Reuters]

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from: Dee to: tiangotlost@gmail.comdate: Mon, Jul 6, 2015 at 8:53 AMsubject...

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from: Dee 
to: tiangotlost@gmail.com
date: Mon, Jul 6, 2015 at 8:53 AM
subject: please can you help

Hi my nieces recently got these tattoo during a drunken night! and neither of them know what they mean

利用 taking/taken advantage of
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Clubman Styling Gel for Men

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clubman styling gel, classic styling hair gel, hair gel for barbers, haircare for men

As this amazon review aptly observes, If you could bottle Ernest Hemingway and turn him into a hair gel, this would be him. It works well, doesn’t flake, and has just the right amount of give. And it smells like a man. Clubman Styling Gel is by Ed Pinaud for Men, and brings you a genuine hometown barber experience. If you are a man that enjoys smelling like a man …. check this out!

Check it Out

The post Clubman Styling Gel for Men appeared first on Five Dollar Finds.

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